Course Name: Health Promotion Level 3

This course is focused on health promotion as it relates to the continuum of care across the lifespan. Health promotion in the context of mental illness, physical and developmental disabilities, and Maternal/Child health is highlighted. Normal growth and development from conception to middle adulthood is addressed.

 

Course Learning Outcomes:

Upon completion of the course, the learner will be able to:

  1. Identify normal patterns of growth and development from conception to middle adulthood.
  2. Provide examples of public health services available to these client groups and pregnant women in the community.
  3. Describe health-promoting strategies for the postpartum client and newborn.
  4. Provide examples of mental health/illness services available to clients in the community.
  5. Describe how culture may impact utilization of mental health resources for these client groups.
  6. Compare the level of health services from urban to rural areas.
  7. Explore examples of harm reduction activities.
  8. Discuss disparities in the delivery of community health services in BC.
  9. Identify and describe health promotion activities for clients living with mental illness and those living with disabilities.
  10. Give examples of teaching and learning strategies for care in the community.
  11. Discuss the impact of immunization in health promotion

 

Learner Characteristics:

 

The students enrolled in this course are in level 3 of the Practical Nursing Program. They have completed the following prerequisites as outlined on the VCC website and then have successfully passed levels 1 and 2 of the PN program.

 

  • Grade 12 graduation or GED equivalent
  • Human anatomy and physiology NURS 1602 with a minimum grade B- or equivalent Proof of
  • English Language Proficiency, which includes a Canadian Language Benchmark of Listening 8, Speaking 8, Reading 8, and Writing 7
  • Successful completion the VCC health sciences math assessment

 

There is a great deal of diversity within our PN students. Students come from many different countries and have varied educational backgrounds. Ages of our students range from 18-65. In our last group, 30% were men, 65% were ESL, and although I’m not sure of exact numbers, the majority of them are pursuing nursing as a second career. In our current group, 16% are men, over 70% are ESL and again, the majority are pursuing a second career. Unfortunately, the language benchmarks are not always met due to a “glitch” in the registration system that allows a student to check off that they have passed English 12. If an ESL student has passed English 12, they do not need to indicate whether or not they have met the above noted benchmarks. While some of our students have a great deal of experience with technology, others have little or no computer experience.

Learning Objective:

This assignment guides the students to meet the following course outcomes.

  • Provide examples of mental health/illness services available to clients in the community.
  • Identify and describe health promotion activities for clients living with mental illness and those living with disabilities.

 

This assignment also guides the students in meeting the following specific lesson objectives.

 

Class 6 Learning Objective:

  • Identify family resources and supports for this client group (children and adolescents living with physical and developmental disabilities).

 

Class 7 Learning Objective:

 

  • Identify family resources and supports for this client group (children and adolescents living with chronic illness)

 

Class 8 Learning Objective:

 

  • Identify family resources and supports for this client group (children and adults with mental illness)

 

Class 9 Learning Objective:

 

  • Identify family resources and supports for this client group (clients and families experiencing substance abuse).

 

Class 10 Learning Objective:

 

  • Identify family resources and supports for this client group (clients and families experiencing violence).

 

Community Group Meeting Assignment – Worth 35% of course mark.

This Assignment asks the student to compose a 3- 4 page reflective report about their personal observations/thoughts/experiences from attending a community group meeting. The group meeting is related to the specific client population presented in Health Promotion 3. It may be one of the following:

a.         Group specific community health meeting about a focus client group

b.         Support group for client and/or family

This assignment is to be done in groups of 2 students. Both students should submit the exact same paper. Each paper should include both students’ names on the title page.

Work with your partner to find a community support group to attend. Contact the “contact” person and arrange to be present at one meeting. You are only to observe and not participate in the meeting in any way with the exception of speaking with one of the participants once the meeting has ended.

After attending the group meeting work together with your partner to complete the following:

Intro:               /10

• Name of the Group of the meeting
• Purpose or mandate of the group.
• Is this part of a chapter or service that is local, provincial or national
• Client group this meeting serves
• Agenda of the meeting

Body:               /10

• Personal reflection and observation of the information shared within the meeting.
• Comment on group dynamics. How did the meeting run? (formal, informal)
• What were the communication strengths /challenges in the meeting?
• How were they dealt with?
• How does the meeting assist or serve its members or client group?
• What resources are available at the meeting to help the client group or family?

Meet a Participant/Your personal Reflection:           /10

• How does the group meeting contribute to or serve the community clientele?
• How does the information and communication styles support and inform the clients/family/community?
• How does this group support the client’s health?
• What did you learn about this group’s association and how the client group benefits from the information and service?
• Would you refer clients to a meeting for support and education?
• Reflect on and describe your interaction with a participant 10 marks

Related Supports/Services:                /10

• Attach a brochure related to the group/meeting.
• What other supports or resources are available for this group of clients? (locally, provincially, nationally)
• Having this knowledge and being aware of these supports, how will this influence your practice as a PN?

Total marks:               /35

 

 

 

Grading Rubric

Introduction None of the components from guidelines addressed0 points Components from guidelines only minimally addressed1-2 points Components from guidelines missing or lacking clarity3-4points Many components from the guidelines addressed. Clarity or more information required. May have several errors in grammar or APA formatting5-6points Most components from guidelines addressed. More clarity or information required7-9points All components in guidelines addressed and documented clearly and succinctly. No errors in APA formatting10points
Body None of the components from guidelines addressed0 points Components from guidelines only minimally addressed1-2 point Components from guidelines missing or lacking clarity3-4 points Many components from the guidelines addressed. Clarity or more information required. May have several errors in grammar or APA formatting5-6 points Most components from guidelines addressed. More clarity or information required7-9 points All components in guidelines addressed and documented clearly and succinctly. No errors in grammar or APA formatting10points
Meet a participant / personal reflection None of the components from guidelines addressed0 points Components from guidelines only minimally addressed1-2 points Components from guidelines missing or lacking clarity3-4 points Many components from the guidelines addressed. Clarity or more information required. May have several errors in grammar or APA formatting5-6 points Most components from guidelines addressed. More clarity or information required7-9 points All components in guidelines addressed and documented clearly and succinctly. No errors in grammar or APA formatting10 points
Related supports / services None of the components from guidelines addressed0 points Components from guidelines only minimally addressed1-2 points Most components from guidelines addressed. More clarity or information needed.3-4 points All components in guidelines addressed and documented clearly and succinctly. No errors in grammar or APA formatting.5-6 points

 


 

Rationale

 

This assessment is in line with a constructivist teaching philosophy and is particularly applicable to nursing students learning about health promotion. This assessment assists the student in meeting several of lesson objectives and two of the overall course goals as noted above.

 

In a course developed based on constructivist philosophy the student or learner is at the center of the learning process and is expected to be an active learner, setting their own goals, exploring, problem-solving and constructing new knowledge (Murphy, 1997). This course allows for this by giving the students choice in what type of group meeting they want to attend.

 

Another tenet of constructivism is that the learning tasks must be authentic; in other words, the students must see the relevance to their own lives (Huang, 2002). “Instruction should be anchored in real-world problems, events, or issues which may be appealing and meaningful to adult learners” (Bostock, 1998, p. 227). As Lefoe (1998) states, “knowledge is context dependent so learning should occur in contexts to which it is relevant” (p. 460). Without this relevance the student will not be motivated to learn (Huang, 2002). Assessments can be designed to maximize the relevance to the student. Attending an actual support group, meeting real clients and seeing a health promotion initiative in action help to make this learning relevant.

 

The social constructivists believe that learning occurs in a social environment. As stated by Ernest in Murphy (1997), “an awareness of social construction of knowledge suggests a pedagogical emphasis on discussion, collaboration, negotiation, and shared meanings…”. Heylighen (1993) as quoted in Murphy (1997), explains that “consensus between different subjects as the ultimate criterion to judge knowledge. ‘Truth’ or ‘reality’ will be accorded only to those constructions on which most people of a social group agree”. Group work gives students the opportunities to share their knowledge as well as to benefit from the knowledge and experiences of other students (Ally, n.d.). Nurses do not work in isolation. They work as part of a team so any learning activities that reinforce a collaborative approach are beneficial. This assignment is done in partnership with another student. (Although this course is offered online, the students are all based in the same community at this time. Should this course be offered to students living in diverse locations, this may have to be altered).

 

 

 

References

 

Ally, M. “Foundations of Educational Theory for Online Learning”. In Theory and Practice of Online Learning. (Chapter 1). Retrieved from http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/authors.html

Bostock, S.J. (1998). Constructivism in Mass Higher Education. British Journal of Educational Technology. 29 (3), 225-40.

http://cclsw2.vcc.ca:2053/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&sid=2ceb3b98-47d4-4462-bad0-e2695c664bcb%40sessionmgr11&hid=19

 

Huang, H.M. (2002). Toward Constructivism for Adult Learners in Online Learning Environments. British Journal of Educational Technology. 33 (1), 27-37 http://cclsw2.vcc.ca:2053/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=7&sid=9529f5c9-bbe3-4451-941e-b46098db3dcc%40sessionmgr15&hid=19

Lefoe, G. (1998). Creating Constructivist Learning Environments on the Web: The challenge in higher education. Retrieved October 8, 2013 from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/wollongong98/asc98-pdf/lefoe00162.pdf

Murphy, E. (1997). Constructivism: From philosophy to practice retrieved October 8, 2013 from http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~emurphy/stemnet/cle.html

 

Assessment Activity Plan

Harm reduction

 

http://www.cna-aiic.ca/en/on-the-issues/better-health/harm-reduction/

 

https://www.bcnu.org/AboutBCNU/BCNUPositionStatement_HarmReduction.pdf

 

 

 

growth and development

 

infant, toddler, preschool, school age

 

safe sleep:

 

http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/dca-dea/publications/hbsc-mental-mentale/index-eng.php

 

nobody’s perfect parenting course for children birth to age 5

 

http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/dca-dea/parent/nobody-personne/index-eng.php

 

vaccine FAQs

 

http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/im/vs-sv/vs-faq-eng.php

 

time to vaccinate:

 

 

preventing unintentional injuries among children and youth

 

http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/inj-bles/fs-fr/2013_0121-eng.php

 

http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/inj-bles/2012_0828-fs-fi-eng.php

 

Child safety

 

http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/dca-dea/stages-etapes/childhood-enfance/safe_child-secur_enfant-eng.php

 

childhood obesity

 

http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/hl-mvs/framework-cadre/index-eng.php

 

 

determinants of health

 

http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/index-eng.php

 

 

 

Canadian adolescent mental health:

 

http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/dca-dea/publications/hbsc-mental-mentale/index-eng.php

 

vision, dental, hearing and health screening in Canada

 

http://www.health.gov.bc.ca/women-and-children/children-and-youth/early-childhood.html

 

mental health

 

http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/go/mental-health-month/staying-well-when-you-have-a-mental-illness

 

http://www.uhs.umich.edu/tenthings

 

http://www.helpguide.org/mental/mental_emotional_health.htm

 

http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/ten_tips_to_stay_mentally_healthy

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MazntlTQK7s

 

http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/help-information/10-ways-to-look-after-your-mental-health/

 

Health Promotion Websites to Use

Faculty Focus Links

What’s Your Learning Philosophy?

Daydreaming or Deep in Thought? Using Formative Assessment to Evaluate Student Participation

http://www.facultyfocus.com/seminars/leverage-social-media-fuel-student-engagement-learning/?campaign=FFA140314

http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-professor-blog/lone-wolfs-approach-group-work/

http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-with-technology-articles/four-reasons-going-digital-can-improve-quality-higher-education/?utm_source=cheetah&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=2014.03.10%20Faculty%20Focus%20Update

http://www.facultyfocus.com/seminars/flipped-approach-online-teaching-learning/?campaign=FFA140307&utm_source=cheetah&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=2014.03.07%20-%20Faculty%20Focus%20Alert

http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-professor-blog/writing-good-multiple-choice-questions/

http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/online-education/top-10-rules-developing-first-online-course/

  • this link has great suggestions for building your first online course. One thing that is noted is that those who teach online tend to overload students with assignments. Keep this in mind.

http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/effective-teaching-strategies/three-strategies-creating-meaningful-learning-experiences/?campaign=FF140224article&utm_source=cheetah&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=2014.02.24%20Faculty%20Focus%20Update

  • learning activities – invite student feedback

 

The Role of the Instructor in Establishing Online Community

A large component of building a successful online course is to ensure the development of a supportive community. How does the role of the instructor impact the community in an online course?

 

What have I learned about how the role of the instructor impacts community in an online course?

 

The instructor sets the tone and expectations for the course. The online instructor is responsible for facilitating all aspects of the online course, from the personal and social to the academic (Paloff and Pratt, 1999 in Vesely, et al. 2007). It is up to the instructor to develop course activities that promote student collaboration and the development of community. Kearsley (2000) is cited in Conrad and Donaldson (2011) as writing,

 

The most important role of the instructor in online classes is to ensure a high degree of interactivity and participation. This means designing and conducting learning activities that result in engagement with the subject matter and with fellow students (p. 5).

 

According to Vesely, et al. (2007), students believe that instructor modeling is the most important thing that an instructor can do to build a sense of community in their online course. One way that instructors do this is through a sense of presence.

 

In a face-to-face course, it is obvious that an instructor is present because they are physically in the same space at the same time as their students. In the online, asynchronous environment it is not as obvious and instructors have to make more of an effort to be “seen”. According to Vesely, et al. (2007), the majority of students and instructors feel that it is harder to develop community online than it is in a face-to-face class. Not surprisingly, Rovai (2002b), in Vesely et al. (2007), found that students felt a stronger sense of community in courses with interactive dialogue. Instructors can promote active dialogue between students as well as engaging in discourse with students themselves. In Vesely, et al. (2007) students felt that instructor modeling is the most important aspect of developing a sense of community. In this case, modeling included participation, feedback, and communication. Communication included being available to discuss course and personal concerns via a variety of methods.

 

If all of the above, help to create a sense of community in an online course, then it stands to reason that doing the exact opposite will hinder the development of community. A disorganized course with little or no instructor presence and no opportunities for students to engage with one another is going to ensure that a sense of community does not develop. An instructor who publicly points out shortcomings in students’ work or in some other way derides or embarrasses the students is going to inhibit a sense of trust and discourage students from contributing.

 

Why did I choose this topic? How do I identify with it?

 

In terms of my own learning, it seemed more appropriate to focus on the role of the instructor. As a student, I know that in order to get the most out of a course, I need to be prepared to engage and collaborate with other students. As an instructor I know that I bear the greater responsibility for ensuring that the course is designed in such a way to promote student engagement and a sense of community and that I must be present in the course to facilitate this. What I have been eager to learn are the concrete strategies I can employ in my course design and facilitation.

 

What does this new learning mean to me? What new insights do I now have? How has my thinking changed?

 

Originally, I did not see the need to create a sense of community in my online courses. As someone who had never taken an online course as a student or taught an online course as an instructor, it never even occurred to me. I just assumed that students would log in, complete their assignments, take their exam and that would be it. Over time, I’ve seen how a lack of community and in particular, lack of instructor presence, can increase the stress level and dissatisfaction in a group of students. Conversely, I’ve seen the opposite occur when I make an effort to be present and establish community within the group.

 

My students are somewhat unique in that they take 5 face-to-face courses together and just one online course. This means that they know each other quite well outside of their online course and have already established friends, study groups and support networks. Each class usually also creates a Facebook page to communicate outside of class. Apparently they use this to communicate about their course work as well as their social lives. This is great except when they post pharmacology questions to each other on Facebook instead of in the Q&A forum in our course. As an instructor, I cannot see their Facebook page, so I don’t know if they are having issues or not.

 

How will I apply this new learning?

 

My goal is to encourage my students to develop a sense of community in my online course. I will do this through course design and facilitation of the course. There are a number of specific strategies I will use. Most of these I have already commented on in my previous journal as well as my community paper, however, they are important so I will repeat them here.

 

  1. Begin each course with a welcome e-mail.
  2. Educate students about the educational value of actively engaging and collaborating with other students.
  3. Post an introduction of myself to the introductions forum and request that each student do the same.
  4. Possibly include other icebreaker type of activity.
  5. Consider including a team building activity.
  6. Post my availability so students know how to reach me.
  7. Be available outside of traditional school hours when online students are most likely to request assistance.
  8. Create introductory video for each course and possibly for each unit within the course.
  9. Inform students of the expectations around class participation and engagement.
  10. Post rules of netiquette for online postings.
  11. Create discussion questions/statements that engage students.
  12. Participate in weekly discussions without inhibiting student participation.
  13. Facilitate students’ contributions to weekly discussion forums.
  14. Summarize each week’s discussions, highlighting key points.
  15. Post frequent announcements in the course announcements forum.
  16. Include a Q&A forum and educate students about the best use of this forum. Students will be encouraged to answer each other’s questions.
  17. Utilize Web 2.0 tools that increase instructor presence and encourage student collaboration.
  18. Once students are comfortable in the online environment, assign activities that give students the opportunity to work in pairs or small groups.
  19. Encourage student-student interaction.
  20. Consider incorporating the use of blogs and wikis into student assignments.
  21. Provide timely and meaningful feedback on students’ assignments.
  22. Solicit and respond to formative and summative feedback from students.

 

 

References

 

Conrad, R. & Donaldson, J. (2011). Engaging the Online Learner. San Francisco. Jossey-Bass.

 

Vesely, P., Bloom, L., and Sherlock, J. (2007). Key Elements of Building Online Community: Comparing Faculty and Student Perceptions. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching. 3 (3). Retrieved from: http://jolt.merlot.org/vol3no3/vesely.htm

 

 

 

References for instructor presence

Boettcher, J.V. & Conrad, R.M. (2010) The Online Teaching Survival Guide – Simple and Practical Pedagogical Tips. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

 

http://distance.uvic.ca/instructors/presence.htm

 

Kelly, R. (2014). Creating a Sense of Instructor Presence in the Online Classroom retrieved Feb. 23, 2014 fromhttp://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/online-education/creating-a-sense-of-instructor-presence-in-the-online-classroom/

 

Mandernach, B.J., Gonzales, R.M., & Garrett, A.L. (2006). An Examination of Online Instructor Presence via
Threaded Discussion Participation. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, vol. 2 (no. 4). Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol2no4/mandernach.htm

 

Morrison, D. (2012). Retrieved Feb. 23, 2014 from http://onlinelearninginsights.wordpress.com/2012/01/16/what-is-online-presence/?relatedposts_exclude=501

 

 

Morrison, D. (2012). Retrieved Feb. 23, 2014 from http://onlinelearninginsights.wordpress.com/2012/01/30/instructor-presence-in-the-online-classroom/

 

How to get student “buy-in” for collaboration

What can we do to integrate effective collaborative learning in our courses, over and above the use of standard discussion forums? What needs to be done to encourage student ‘buy in’ for this collaboration to be successful?

I must say that this particular topic is one that I really struggle with so I’m looking forward to reading others’ posts.

Just yesterday I pulled up a course that I developed last summer before I began this certificate program. At the time I was working on it I knew that my discussion forums could really use some work and when I looked at them yesterday I just groaned. Too many times, I posted a question that didn’t really invite discussion so much as just ask students to answer a question. In some cases, I asked them to comment on other students contributions, but again, I’m not sure in this context that I’m encouraging collaborative learning so much as creating a make work project which students will end up resenting.

In the upcoming months I need to fine tune the course I started last summer as well as develop two new courses. It is this aspect of encouraging effective collaborative learning, coming up with meaty discussion topics and developing authentic, meaningful assignments, that actually has me a bit worried. I’ve been allocated a certain amount of time for each of these courses and I know from experience that in order to create the best product I will need more time than I’m allocated. Being pressed for time has a way of dampening my creative spirit.

Because this is something that doesn’t seem to come naturally to me, I’ve been looking at what other instructors  do as well as doing some reading on the subject to get some ideas. I read a number of articles with titles that sounded excellent but failed to deliver on their promises to help me overcome challenges in promoting collaborative learning in my online courses. Luckily a couple of the articles offered several excellent suggestions that I felt were relevant in my teaching context and I thought I’d share some of them here.

Vicky Zygouris-Coe (2012) cites Paloff and Pratt’s 2005 work suggesting that community building and collaboration go hand in hand. This makes sense, because as students develop a sense of community, they are more likely to collaborate willingly and in collaborating with others they are more likely to develop a sense of community. When students collaborate to co-create knowledge a bond is formed between them. She also notes that a student who collaborates is an engaged student – bonus!

Zygouris-Coe (2012) states that she spends time at the beginning of her course establishing a sense of community through “introductions, feedback, meetings, and community building activities”. And, (I’m sure I read this somewhere but can’t find a specific source to cite at the moment), introducing students to collaboration in a low stakes, non-threatening environment where they are assured of success will promote enthusiasm for future collaboration.

Zygouris-Coe (2012) notes that in one particular group project she intentionally kept the group size small (4 students) in order to optimize student-student interaction. Clifford (2012) also agrees that groups of 4 or 5 are best, large enough to allow for diversity but not so large that some group members do not participate.  

Zygouris-Coe (2012) shares her “lessons learned”. Some of these stand out as particularly relevant for me. The first thing she suggests is examining your philosophy about how teaching and learning occur and how knowledge is constructed in the online environment. Does this sound familiar to anyone? I’m having flashbacks to 4150. But really, if you say that you relate to the constructivist philosophy, then that will give you guidance in how you design your course, what types of assignments you offer and whether or not you incorporate opportunities for student collaboration.

Once you have decided to incorporate collaborative learning opportunities, how do you go about this daunting task? The following is an excerpt from Zygouris-Coe’s article:

Value online collaborative learning and make it visible to everyone in your syllabus, course, and instruction.
Help students in an online course “see” the value of collaboration and explain why it plays a role in your course and how it will support their learning.
Identify course objectives for student learning that will be met through collaboration.
Identify collaborative activities and tasks students will be involved in at which point for the course, for how long, and desired outcomes and products.
Design collaborative learning tasks in a flexible manner and allow for modifications and revisions based on student feedback and your own personal assessment of student learning.
To me, helping students “see” the value of collaboration is how you get that buy-in. With our beginning LPN students we establish “buy-in” for the constructivist way we do things. This is particularly important for students with no experience in this style of education who are used to being lectured to and then regurgitating information at a later time. We get this “buy-in” by talking about the research that supports the constructivist style of teaching and learning. I think we need to do the same thing to get “buy-in” for collaboration. We may have to work hard at this since students often groan when they hear the words “group work”.  Maybe at the beginning of a course, we need to have a section where we share this kind of information with the students. In one of my courses, I posted a link to an article that discussed the benefits of online learning over traditional face to face learning. This worked well to get the buy in of students who were very nervous about taking their first online course.

Zygouris-Coe has one final point that resonates with me and that I tend to struggle with putting into practice. She suggests developing assignments that encourage students to discuss varying opinions. Clifford (2012) recommends using real world problems and also enhancing critical thinking skills. Miller (2012) also suggests that group work must be meaningful to the students. I need to really work on these points as I proceed with online course development.

Finally, with no intention of sucking up to the teacher… I must say that the assignment in this course of compiling and commenting on what we consider to be our top 3 discussion posts has been effective in getting me to contribute in a meaningful way. I might incorporate this strategy into my online courses.

References

Clifford, M. (2012). Facilitating Collaborative Learning: 20 Things You Need to Know From the Pros
Cited From: http://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/features/facilitating-collaborative-learning-20-things-you-need-to-know-from-the-pros/#ixzz2xaWUABMH

Miller, A. (2012). Blended Learning: Strategies for Engagement. http://www.edutopia.org/blog/blended-learning-engagement-strategies-andrew-miller

Zygouris-Coe, V. (2012). COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN AN ONLINE TEACHER

EDUCATION COURSE: LESSONS LEARNED. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from: http://www.icicte.org/Proceedings2012/Papers/08-4-Zygouris-Coe.pdf

 

http://www.magnapubs.com/newsletter/story/5153/ (would like to access this article but need a subscription and VCC doesn’t have one)